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2015年北京学位英语测试重点:不定式应注意的问题

时间:2014年01月22日 来自:来源: 陕西成人高考网 资讯更全面,成考更专业 访问点击量:1861次

北京学位英语测试重点:不定式应注意的问题

1、关于不定式的作用

1)不定式作主语时,若主语较长而谓语较短,常以作句首形式而不定式放在句末

It’s illegal to drive without a license.

It is human to want something better.

2)在think, consider, believe, find, know, declare, guess, prove, suppose, imagine等词后面常接“to+be+形容词/名词/反身代词结构”作宾补,但to be常可省略

All her friends supposed her (to be)dead.

We sometimes imagine a desert island (to be) a sort of paradise, where sun always shines.

3)在序数词,形容词/副词的最高级,和the last, the only后,常用不定式作定语

She was the only one to survive the crash.

He loves parties; he is always the first to come and last to leave.

4)“介词+which+不定式’可作定语,which代替前面的中心词

You have a number of topics from which to choose.

She had no time left in which to pack her things.

5)“连接词what/which/when/where/who/why/how等+不定式”可作主语,宾语,宾补,表语等。

What to do next remains undecided.

Our difficulty is how to get enough food.

He discovered how to open the safe.

2、关于不定式的时态

1)一般式to do表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作之后发表;

进行式to be doing可表示该动作正在发生,或与谓语动作同时进行;

完成式to have done表示的动作在谓语动作表示的动作之前发生。

They all agreed to give up this plan.

I happened to be standing next to him when he collapsed.

He pretended not to have seen me.

2)expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, suppose, think, want, wish等词的过去式完成时态+不定式的一般形式;would/should like +不定式的完成时态表示过去未曾实现的愿望,打算或意图。

I had intended to call on to you ,but was prevented from doing so.

He would like to have attended the meeting, but he was ill.

3、关于不定式的语态

1)当不定式与其修饰的词之间有动宾关系,并且与句中主/宾/表语有逻辑上的主谓关系时,用主动形式表示被动含义。

We have many difficulties to overcome.

I’ll show you the right path to take.

2)当不定式作表语/宾补形容词的状语,又与句中的主语或宾语有逻辑上动宾关系时,用主动形式表示被动含义

Some books are interesting to read, but boring to learn.

They found the subject hard to understand

3)在there be句型中修饰的主语的不定式常用主动形式

There is nothing to see.

There are a lot of letters to answer this night.

4、关于不定式的逻辑主语

1)不定式的逻辑主语/复合不定式常用“for+名词/代词宾格+不定式”结构

It is difficult for me to drive in the mountains.

It is a great honor for us to be present at the party.

2)在表示人物性格特征或感情色彩的形容词后,常用of引出不定式的逻辑主语,如:absurd(荒唐的),brave, careful, careless, clever, considerate, courageous, cruel, foolish, generous, good(友善),graceful, honest, kind, nice, polite, right, rude, silly, stupid, thoughtful, wicked(邪恶的),wise, wrong, generous, unwise.

It was unwise of him to make that silly remark.

It was very thoughtful of her to come to see me when I was ill.

5、不定式省略to的情况

1)主动语态中,以下表达后接省略to的不定式:look at, notice, see, watch, observe, hear, listen to feel, have, make, let, cannot but, do nothing/anything but, had better, had best, would rather(……than), would sooner, would just as soon, might as well

I would sooner resign than work under that boss.

You’d better remain where you are.

2)在why和why not后常接省to的不定式构成问句

Why worry about such trifles?

Why not wait for a couple of days?

3)在介词but和except前若有实义动词do的各种形式,后接省略to的不定式

We had nothing to do but cancel the meeting

I don’t have any choice but/except to give up the plan.

4)在下列固定搭配中常用省略to的不定式:leave/let go(放开),let slip(失言,错过),make do(凑合),make believe(假装),haer say /tell(听说)

He made believe he was innocent.

Don’t let slip such a good opportunity to learn

Make that dog leave go my coat.

5)两个不定式结构由and, or , but, except, than相连时,第二个不定式省略to

He hardly knew whether to laugh or cry.

It is easier to persuade people than force them

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