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2019年下半年成人学位英语模拟试题及答案十一

时间:2020年03月09日 来自:来源: 陕西成人高考网 资讯更全面,成考更专业 访问点击量:442次

Passage 2

The differences in living standards around the world are vast. In 1993, the average American had an income of about $25,000. In the same year, the average Mexican earned $7,000, and the average Nigerian earned $1,500. Not surprisingly, this large variation in average income is reflected in various measures of the quality of life. Changes in living standards over time are also large. In the United States, incomes have historically grown about 2 percent per year (after adjusting for changes in the cost of living). At this rate, average income doubles every 35 years. In some countries, economic growth has been even more rapid. In Japan, for instance, average income has doubled in the past 20 years, and in South Korea it has doubled in the past 10 years.

What explains these large differences in living standards among countries and over time? The answer is surprisingly simple. Almost all variation in living standards is attributable to differences in countries' productivity—that is, the amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker's time. In nations where workers can produce a large quantity of goods and services per unit of time, most people enjoy a high standard of living; in nations where workers are less productive, most people must endure a more meager existence. Similarly, the growth rate of a nation's productivity determines the growth rate of its average income.

The fundamental relationship between productivity and living standards is simple, but its implications are far-reaching. If productivity is the primary determinant of living standards, other explanations must be of secondary importance. For example, people might think that labor unions or minimum-wage laws contributed to the rise in living standards of American workers over the past century. Yet the real hero of American workers is their rising productivity.

The relationship between productivity and living standards also has great implications for public policy. When thinking about how any policy will affect living standards, the key question is how it will affect our ability to produce goods and services. To improve living standards, policymakers need to raise productivity by ensuring that workers are well educated, have the tools needed to produce goods and services, and have access to the best available technology.

46. Which of the following countries has enjoyed the fastest economic growth in history?

A. Mexico. B. The United States C. Japan D. South Korea.

47. The Word “meager'’ in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to “____”

A.modest B. poor C.meaningless D.plentiful

48. What is the most important factor that leads to the rise in living standards of average people?

A.Labor unions B.Minimum-wage laws C.Rising productivity. D.Favorable public policy

49. The study of the relationship between productivity and living standards is significant that_______________.

A.it calls policymakers’ attention to a qualified work force

B.it encourages workers to get better education

C.it helps improve the workers’ ability to produce goods ands services

D.it enables policymakers to access the latest technology

50. The passage mainly discusses______

A.the differences in average income among countries B.the relationship between productivity and living standards

C.the causes of the rise in living standards D.the importance of raising productivity

Passage 3

Recent stories in the newspapers and magazines suggest that teaching and research contradict each other, that research plays too prominent a part in academic promotions, and that teaching is badly underemphasized. There is an element of truth in these statements, but they also ignore deeper and more important relationships.

Research experience is an essential element of hiring and promotion at a research university because it is the emphasis on research that distinguishes such a university from an arts college. Some professors, however, neglect teaching for research and that presents a problem.

Most research universities reward outstanding teaching, but the greatest recognition is usually given for achievements in research. Part of the reason is the difficulty of judging teaching. A highly responsible and tough professor is usually appreciated by top students who want to be challenged, but disliked by those whose records are less impressive. The mild professor gets overall ratings that are usually high, but there is a sense of disappointment in the part of the best students, exactly those for whom the system should present the greatest challenges. Thus, a university trying to promote professors primarily on the teaching qualities would have to confront this confusion.

As modern science moves faster, two forces are exerted on professor: one is the time needed to keep on with the profession; the other is the time needed to teach. The training of new scientists requires outstanding teaching at the research university as well as the arts college. Although scientists are usually “made” in the elementary schools, scientists can be “lost” by poor teaching at the college and graduate school levels. The solution is not to separate teaching and research, but to recognize that the combination is difficult but vital. The title of professor should be given only to those who profess, and it is perhaps time for universities to reserve it for those willing to be an earnest part of the community of scholars. Professors unwilling to teach can be called “distinguished research investigators” or something else.

The pace of modern science makes it increasingly difficult to be a great researcher and a great teacher. Yet many are described in just those terms. Those who say we can separate teaching and research simply do not understand the system but those who say the problem will disappear are not fulfilling their responsibilities. ( 389 )

51. What idea does the author want to convey in the first paragraph?

A. It is wrong to overestimate the importance of teaching. B. Teaching and research are contradictory to each other.

C. Research can never be emphasized too much.

D. The relationship between teaching and research should not be simplified.

52. In academic promotions research universities still attach more importance to research partly because ______.

A. research improves the quality of teaching

B. students who want to be challenged appreciate research professors

C. it is difficult to evaluate teaching quality objectively

D. professors with achievements in research are usually responsible and tough

53. According to the fourth paragraph, which of the following will the author probably agree with?

A. Distinguished professors at research universities should concentrate on research only.

B. The separation of teaching from research can lower the quality of future scientists.

C. It is of utmost importance to improve teaching in elementary schools in order to train new scientists.

D. The rapid developments of modern science makes it impossible to combine teaching with research.

54. The title of professor should be given only to those who, first and foremost, do ______.

A. teaching B. field work C. scientific research D. investigation

55. The phrase “the problem” (Para. 5, Line 3) refers to ______.

A. raising the status of teaching B. the combination of teaching with research

C. the separation of teaching from research D. improving the status of research

Passage 4

There are a number of formats for reporting research, such as articles to appear in journals, reports addressed to funding agencies, theses or dissertations as part of the requirements for university degrees, and papers to be presented at conferences. These formats differ from one another mostly in their purposes and the audiences whom they address. We will now briefly describe them.

The journal article is a way of reporting research for professional journals or edited collections. The research is reporting in a brief, yet informative way, focusing mostly on the main features of the research such as the purpose, review of the literature (often referred to as "background"), procedures used for carrying out the research accompanied by tables, charts, and graphs, and interpretations of the results (often referred to as discussion).

The content and emphasis of the journal article will vary according to the intended readers (research or practitioners) and it is important for the researcher to be aware of the background and interest of the readers of the journal. Articles intended to be read by practitioners will emphasize the practical implications and recommendations of the research, while articles intended to be read by researchers will describe in detail the method used to collect data, the construction of data collection procedures, and the techniques used for analyzing the data. It is important for the novice researcher to be aware of the fact that articles submitted to journals go through a process of evaluation by experts who make a judgment and recommend whether they should be published or not.

The thesis or dissertation is a format for reporting research which graduate students write as part of fulfilling the requirements for an advanced academic degree. The student is expected to describe in great detail all the phases of the research so it can be examined and evaluated carefully by the reader. Thus the thesis or dissertation includes the purpose and significance of the study, the rationale, a thorough review of the literature, detailed information as to the research tools and the procedures involved in their development, a description of data analysis and the results, and an interpretation of the results in the form of conclusions, implications, and recommendation. This detailed description of the process of the research is needed to provide the professors with an indication of the student's ability to carry out research.

The conference paper is a way of reporting research at conferences, seminars and colloquia. At such meetings research papers are usually presented orally. They are similar to the research article since research is reported in a concise, yet informative way, focusing on the most essential elements of the research. Handouts and transparencies can also accompany the presentations. As with the research article, here too, the content and emphasis of the oral report will depend to a large extent on the type of audience present at the meeting, and whether they are researchers or practitioners ( 486 )

56. The best title for this passage could be ______

A. Types of Research Reports B. Types of Journal Articles

C. Writing of research Reports D. Writing of Different Articles

57. The common aspect for the journal articles, theses and conference papers lies in that

A. they are all for the practitioners B. they are all to be read by researchers

C. they are all for being published D. they are all forms of reporting research

58. We can distinguish those research reports from each other mainly through __

A. their writing style and length B. their aims and possible audiences

C. their presented places and time D. their content and purposes

59. Which of the following statements is not mentioned in this passage?

A. Both journal articles and conference papers are reported in a brief and informative way

B. All the theses or dissertations and conference papers are reported in spoken languages.

C. Both the journal articles and conference papers are influenced greatly by the intended receivers.

D. The various formats of research reports may be presented in different ways.

60. How can a professor evaluate a student's capability of implementing the research.*

A. By concentrating on the main factors like the purpose, background, procedures and discussion:

B. By emphasizing the practical implications and recommendations of the research.

C. By focusing on the detailed description of the process of the research such as the tools, process the process of data analysis, the results, and conclusions etc.

D. By noticing the detailed method used to collect the data, the construction of the data collection procedures, the techniques for analyzing the date and results etc.

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