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陕西学位英语试题讲义:现在分词和过去分词的区别

时间:2014年02月22日 来自:来源: 陕西成人高考网 资讯更全面,成考更专业 访问点击量:1537次

英语中的分词分两种:现在分词(the present participle)和过去分词(the past participle)。虽然它们在句子中都可作名词修饰语、接系动词补足语、宾语补足语等,但是它们形式不同,而且语义也有差别。


  现在从四方面举例说明。

  ⒈现在分词表示动作是主动的和正在进行的(例①-③);过去分词的动作是被动的和完成的(例④-⑥):

  ① The boiling water is hot.

  ② A sleeping baby is good to look at.

  ③ She has a smiling face.

  ④ You can use the boiled water to make tea.

  ⑤ Where is my lost key?

  ⑥ A broken mirror cannot be repaired.

  有时,由于两个动词“异词同义”,其分词也跟着不同 ,如:

  ⑦a. Have you seen the man wearing a T-shirt?

  b. Who is the man dressed in a blue shirt?

  ⑧a. His new book consisting of useful data has been well received.

  b. Do you like the book made up of untrue stories?


  ⒉在语义上,现在分词和过去分词反映的心理状态不同。前者有 “令人……”的含义(见例⑨);过去分词则有“感到……”的意思(见例⑩):

  ⑨ The soccer match last night was thrilling.(令人紧张)

  ⑩ The soccer fans were delighted.(感到高兴)

  其他例子有:

  ● amazing: amazed;

  ● annoying: annoyed;

  ● boring: bored;

  ● confusing: confused;

  ● surprising: surprised;

  ● terrifying: terrified


  试比较11a和b以及12a和b: www.yingyusanji.com

  11a. This is the most confusing system I have ever seen.

  11b. The children will get confused if asked to learn too much at a time.

  12a. David came with some surprising news.

  12b. All were surprised at Sam's sudden resignation.

  ⒊在作宾语补足语时,如果宾语是有关分词逻辑上的主语,就用现在分词,如:

  13. The teacher found a student dozing off.

  14. Don't keep the visitor waiting.

  如果宾语和有关分词有“动词 宾语”关系,那么这个分词就要是过去分词了,如:

  15. Where did you get your book printed?

  16. You should have your office whitewashed.

  在13里,正在打瞌睡的是宾语“a student”; 在14里,宾语是 “the visitor”。15里,“printed”的宾语是“books”; 16里, “whitewashed”的宾语是“his office”。

  4.分词短语相当于副词从句,但现在式表示的是主动的行动,如例,过去式表示被动的行动,如:

  17 Entering the room, she found the wall newly painted.

  18 Written in haste, the essay had some errors.

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