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陕西学位英语阅读理解全真模拟试题二

时间:2014年02月22日 来自:来源: 陕西成人高考网 资讯更全面,成考更专业 访问点击量:1676次

第二套

 

A

 

The three main types of secondary education in the United States have been provided by the Latin grammar school,the academy,and the public high school.The first of these was a colonial institution.It began in New England with the establish ment in 1635 of the Boston Free Latin School.The curriculum(课程) consisted mainly of the classical languages,and the purpose of this kind of school was the preparation of boys for college,where most of them would be fitted for the ministry.

The academy began in the early 1750’s with Benjamin Franklin’s school in Philadelphia, which later became the University of Pennsylvania. It extended generally to about the middle nineteeth century,except in the southern states where the public high school was late in developing and where the academy continued to be a principal means of secondary education even after 1900.The academy was open to girls as well as to boys,and it provided a wider curriculum than what the Latin grammar school had furnished.It was designed not only as a preparation for college but also for practical life in commercial and business activities.Although its wide educational values are evident and are recognized as important contributions to secondary education in this country,the academy has never been considered a public institution as the public high school has come to be.

The public high school had its origin in Massachusetts in 1821 when the English Classical School was established in Boston.In 1827,the state enacted(制定)the first statewide public highschool law in the United States.By 1840,there were perhaps a dozen public high schools in Massachusetts and many in other eastern states by 1850,they could also be found in many other states.Just as the curriculum of the academy grew out of that of the Latin grammar school,the curriculum of the public high school developed out of that of the academy.The public high school in the United States is a repudiation(推翻) of the aristocratic(贵族的)and selective principle of the European educational tradition.Since 1890,enrollments( 入学)in secondary schools,mainly public high schools,have practically doubled in this country every ten years.

1.According to the passage,which of the following sequences indicates the order in which the schools developed?

A)Latin grammar school,public high school,academy.

B)Latin grammar school,academy,public high school.

C)Public high school,Latin grammar school,academy.

D)Public high school,academy,Latin grammar school.

2.It is the opinion of the author that the academy,compared with the public high school,was ____.

A)obviously academically better

B)more discriminatory in student selection

C)coeducational

D)not generally considered as a public institution

3.The year 1827 marks the ____.

A)enactment of the first statewide public highschool law

B)founding of the Latin Grammar School in Boston

C)establishment of the English classical School in Boston

D)year when Massachusetts made free public education compulsory after the eighth grade

4.One can probably infer from his article that “Latin grammar school”refers to ____.

A)the Boston Free Latin School

B)all the elementary schools in the United States

C)schools which taught Latin,exclusive of all other subjects

D)a number of schools which developed in New England

5.It is implied but not stated in the passage that ____.

A)European educational systems are not good

B)As high schools developed in the united states,the decision was made to make them responsible to people from all classes of socitety.

C)There was an aristocratic and selective principle in the European educaional tradition

D)public high schools in the United States embraced the European educational tradition


B

 

In the eighteenth—century one of the first modern economists,Adam Smith, thought that the “whole annual produce of the land and labour of every country” provided revenue to “three different orders of people:those who live by rent,those who live by wages,and those who live by profit”.Each successive stage of the industrial revolution, however,made the social structure more complicated.

Many intermediate groups grew up during the nineteenth century between the upper middle class and the working class.There were small—scale industrialists as we ll as large ones,small shopkeepers and tradesmen,officials and salaried employees,skilled and unskilled workers,and professional men such as doctors and teachers. Farmers and peasants continued in all countries as independent groups.

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the possession of wealth inevitably affected a person’s social position.Intelligent industrialists with initiative made fortunes by their wits which lifted them into an economic group far higher than that of their working—class parents.But they lacked social training of the upper class,who despised them as the “new rich.”

They often sent their sons and daughters to special school to acquire soical training.Here their children,mixed with the children of the upper classes,were accepted by them,and very often found marriage partners from among them.In the same way,a thrifty,hardworking labourer,though not clever himself,might save for his son enough to pay for an extended secondary school education in the hope that he would move in a “whitecollar”occupation,carrying with it a higher salary and a move up in the social scale.

In the twentieth century the increased taxation of higher incomes,the growth of the social services,and the wider development of educational opportunity have considerably altered the social outlook.The upper classes no longer are the sole, or even the main possessors of wealth,power and education,though inherited social position still carries considerable prestige.

6.What criterion did Adam Smith seem to go by in his classification of social groups?

A)The amount of wealthB)The amount of money

C)The social statusD)The way of getting money

7.If you compare the first and second paragraph,what groups of people did Adam Smith leave out in his classification?

A)Officials and employees.B)Peasants and farmers.

C)Doctors and teachers.D)Tradesmen and landlords.

8.Who were the ‘new rich’ during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

A)They were still the upper class people.

B)They were owners of large factories.

C)They were intelligent industrialists.

D)They were skilled workers who made their fortune.

9.According to the passage,what did those people do who intended to make their children move up in the social ladder?

A)They saved a lot of money for their children to receive higher education.

B)They tried to find marriage partners from the children of the upper class.

C)They made greater fortunes by their wits.

D)They worked even harder to acquire social training.

10.In the twentieth century class differences have been partly smoothed out by ____.

A)increased income and decreased taxation

B)taxation,social services and educational opportunities

C)education,the increase of income and industrial development

D)the decrease of the upper class population

 

C

 

Attitudes differed to small errors of grammar and usage,or inappropriateness of vocabulary and idiom,with the native speakers finding such errors a little irksome(令人厌烦的)though sometimes amusing,while the Chinese panel members paid hardly any attention to such errors as,for example,misuse of phrasal verbs and similar usages:“When I saw the job description,I decided to apply the position.” “I expect to find out a lot of challenge in the job.”“I can deal the emergency situations efficiently.”

Errors of idiom or appropriateness caused more comment,during the post interview discussion,from the native speakers than from the Chinese panel members, on whom the errors were sometimes lost. For example, one candidate, when asked what salary he expected,replied:“I don’t care about it.”The message was clear enough,namely that he was primarily interested in the job, but the formulation of the message was not quite right.Even such ribticklers(笑话)as “I am a wellplanned person .”and “I would like to expose myself in another field”(both actually heard at interviews) tended to cause lipbiting among the expatriate rather than the Chinese interviewers.

Panels with two Chinese and one expatriate used to be more common,but are becoming less common. The reason is that with more of the interview now being conducted in Chinese, the nonChinesespeaker does not know what has already been asked and is liable to repeat in English questions that have already been covered in Chinese.This caused,naturally enough,confusion in the interviewee and can adversely affect the whole interview.

The sensible procedure would seem to be to open the interview in the mother tongue of the candidates,to put them at their ease,then at a later stage turn to English,to test English proficiency.In practice,however,possibly because of the problem mentioned in the previous paragraph when the panel contains a foreigner,it is often the reverse,with a few,fairly standard,opening questions in English,and if these are successfully answered,then the job interview properly gets underway in Cantonese.

One of the worst interview scenarios(方案)is when a foreigner who thinks she/he can speak Cantonese (but does so,in fact,badly) decides to question the interviewee in Cantonese.In other circumstances of a social nature the interviewee would no doubt politely compliment the foreigner on his or her good Cantonese,but in the seriousness of a job interview situation,the Chinese is confused and slightly embarrassed for the foreigner.These forays(初步尝试)into Chinese usually end pretty quickly with one of the Chinese members of the panel rescuing the foreigner and continuing the interview in English.

11.The word “adversely” in the last sentence of the third paragraph is closest in meaning to ____.

A)positivelyB)negativelyC)hardD)slightly

12.Concerning misuses of phrasal verbs,____.

A)both Chinese and the native speakers of English find them amusing

B)the Chinese interviewers tend to be tolerant

C)the Chinese interviewers and the English native speaker interviewers often have a discussionZK)〗

D)might sometimes become a laughing stock to the native speakers of English but draw hardly any attention from the Chinese

13.It is implied in the passage that ____.

A)Chinese are generally liable to make mistakes in English grammar and vocabular y usage

B)expatriate interviewers are generally more friendly with interviews

C)braver candidates can often get the upper hand

D)the candidates often deliver an improper message for the use of inappropriate expressions

14.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

A)The nonChinesespeaking interviewer might ask the questions which have already been asked by the Chinese and hence cause confusion.

B)It is more practicable to start an interview with a few fairly standard questions in English before switching to Chinese.

C)The best procedure of an interview would seem to be beginning in Cantonese and then testing English proficiency.

D)The Chinese interviewee often politely compliments the foreign interviewer if he or she speaks cantonese if it is not actually so good in the interview.

15.This passage is mainly concerned with ____.

A)whether language proficiency or work abuility counts in job interviews

B)how to avoid awkward situation in a job interview in HongKong

C)the language used in a job interview with both Chinese and expatriate panel members

D)the sensible procedure of getting on with an interview where the Chinese interviewee’s English is to be tested

 

D

 

The concept of personal choice in relation to health behaviors is an important one. An estimated 90 percent of all illnesses may be preventable if individuals would make sound personal health choice and do not like to see it restricted when it is within the legal and moral boundaries of society.The structure of American society allows us to make almost all our own personal decisions that may concern our health.If we so desire,we can smoke,drink excessively,refuse to wear seat belts,eat whatever foods we want,and live a completely sedentary life style without any exercise.The freedom to make such personal decisions is a fundamental aspect of our society,although the wisdom of these decisions can be questioned. Personal choices relative to health often cause a difficulty. As one example, a teenager may know the facts relative to smoking cigarettes and health but may be pressured by friends into believing it is the socially accepted thing to do.

A multitude of factors,both inherited and environmental,influence the development of healthrelated behaviors,and it is beyond the scope of this text to discuss all these factors as they may affect any given individual.However,the decision to adopt a particular healthrelated behavior is usually one of personal choices.There are healthy choices and there are unhealthy choices.In discussing the morals of personal choice,Fries and Grapo drew a comparison.They suggest that to knowingly give onself over to a behavior that has a statistical probability of shortening life is similar to attempting suicide.Thus,for those individuals who are interested in preserving both the quality and quantity of life,personal health choices should reflect those behaviors that are associated with a statistical probability of increased vitality and longevity.

16.The concept of personal choice concerning health is important because ____.

A)personal health choice help cure most illness

B)it helps raise the level of our medical knowledge

C)it is essential to personal freedom in American society

D)wrong decisions could lead to poor health

17.To “live a completely sedentary lifestyle”(L7,Para.1)in the passage means____.

A)to “live an inactive life”

B)to “live a decent life”

C)to “live a life with complete freedom”

D)to “live a life of vice”

18.Sound personal health choice is often difficult to make because ____. 

A)current medical knowledge is still insufficient

B)there are many factors influencing our decisions

C)few people are willing to trade the quality of life for the quantity of life

D)people are usually influenced by the behavior of their friends

19.To knowingly allow oneself to pursue unhealthy habits is compared by Fries and Crapo to ____.

A)improving the quality of one’s life

B)limiting one’s personal health choice

C)deliberately ending one’s life

D)breaking the rules of social behavior

20.According to Fries and Crapo sound health choices should be based on ____.

A)personal decisions B)society’s laws

C)statistical evidenceD)friend’s opinions

 


答案与解析

1.B题句的问题是根据文章选择学校出现的次序,按照文章,拉丁语法学校,专科 院校和公立高中出现的时间分别是1635年,1750年,1821年,故B为正确选项。

2.D 题句的问题对公共高校和专科院校进行比较,文章第二段末指出专科院校从未像公共 高校那样看作是公共机构,故D为正确选项。

3.A 文章的第三段指出在1827年麻省制定了美国第一个州范围内的公立高中法律,所以为正确选项。

4.A 文章的开头指出拉丁语学校开始于英格兰的1635年建立的波士顿免费拉丁学校,所以 A为正确选项。

5.C 文章最后指出,公立高中是对贵族的和欧洲教育传统有选择的特权的推翻,说明存在 贵族的和有选择特权的欧洲教育传统,A项,BD项的内容文章中没有涉及,故C为正确选项 

6.D 文章的开头,亚当·斯密按照人们的收入方式进行分类,所以D为正确选项。7.B 文章的第二段末指出全国只有农场主和农民继续作为一个独立的群体,所以农民和农 场主并未在亚当·斯密的分类中,故B为正确选项。

8.C 文章的第三段指出“new rich”是指富有进取心的精明企业家赁智慧而发财的人,故 C为正确选项。

9.A 文章的第四段指出,那些存有足够的钱让子女接受特殊的学校教育的人希望他们的孩 子能提高社会地位,所以A为正确选项。

10.B 文章的最后,作者说明对高额收入增加税收,社会服务和教育机会的扩大,阶级差别 逐渐模糊,所以B为正确选项。

11.B adversely所在句中confusion一词说明影响是负面的。故应选B作为答案。

12.D 关于对misuses of phrasal verbs的反应,第一小段论及。第一句便告诉读者中外面试者态度不同。第二小段也提及类似问题,故D项为最佳选项。

13.A 根据第一、二小段中内容,中国人对于语法词组错误反应迟钝,也常出这类错误。故 A为正确选项。BCD皆为依据不足的选项。

14.D 选项A与文中第三段内容相对,选项B与原文第四段第二句相符。选项C与原文第四小 段第一句相对。故选DD与最后一段第二句矛盾。

15.C 此文主要涉及interviewees使用英语的情况以及interviewers使用语言的问题。故答 案为选项C。关键在于将各小段内容综合起来看,不能以偏概全。16.D 问为什么涉及身心健康的个人选择是很重要的。文章第二句话指出,如果能在保健知 识的基础上作出有益于身心健康的选择的话,则90%疾病可预防,反之亦然。D项含义选错 就可能使身体多病。”

17.A 上下文有“If we so desire,we can smoke drink excessively,refuse to wear seat belts,eat whatever foods we want.”所列四项都是具体的日常事情。只有A项与所列 四项同类。而该词组后紧接着“without exercise”由此分析,A为正确选项。

18.B 问为什么有益于身心健康的选择常常是困难的。答题的依据是第一段末尾部分和第二 段开头部分。

19.C 文章说,在谈到个人选择伦理时,Fries and Crapo打了一个比方。明知放纵自己的此种行为与习惯可能会导致缩短生命,但仍要作,这如同企图自杀一样。C刻意结束自 己的生命与文章相符,故C正确。

20.C 文章最后一句话指出,对那些想健康长寿的人来说,应选择那些从概率上讲有利于增 强人的活力和延长人寿命的行为。C项讲应在有统计数据作证据的基础上作出有益于身心健 康的个人选择。

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